Steklo i Keramika (Glass and Ceramics). Monthly scientific, technical and industrial journal

 

ISSN 0131-9582 (Online)

VOL 95, No. 8 (2022)

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  • FORMATION OF CRYSTALLINE LINES OF LITHIUM HEPTAGERMANATE IN LITHIUM GERMANATE GLASS

    • Pages: 3-9
    • Views: 209
    In this study, direct femtosecond laser writing of continuous crystalline lines possessing oriented structure and formed by ferroelectric Li2Ge7O15 phase in the bulk of glass of molar composition, mol. %: (20 Li2O; 80 GeO2). The unexpected difference between crystalline phases precipitating in glass under the laser beam and during the heat-treatment is revealed.
    The obtained results are of interest for the development of crystalline channel waveguides in lithium germanate glass.
  • ABOUT THE POSSIBILITY OF USING COBALT-CONTAINING WASTE FROM METALLURGICAL PRODUCTION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COLORED GLASSES AND GLASS ENAMEL

    • Pages: 10-18
    • Views: 213

    This article depicts about the results in the study of the EP indicators of cobalt-containing waste in order to use it as a substitute for scarce expensive cobalt oxide, in the production of colored sectional glass and ground glass enamel. The experiments established the chemical, mineralogical and granulometric composition, proposed a processing technology with the release of a concentrate containing Co3O4 in 36,45 %, with the addition of which blue-colored high-quality glass was obtained, which confirms the applicability of this waste in replacing pure cobalt oxide. Also, in order to reveal the possibility of using this waste in the process of obtaining glass enamel, a number of experiments were carried out and the obtained samples were studied by the physicochemical method, and the optimal conditions and quantity of it as a chromophore and adhesion activator in the glass enamel–metal system.

  • CARBON FOOTPRINT OF THE LIFE CYCLE OF GLASS CONTAINER

    • Pages: 19-27
    • Views: 217

    In this paper, we discuss glass containers as type of package for beverages characterized with the minimum negative environmental impact. We studied reports of independent researchers who described possible solutions for reducing carbon footprint of glass containers manufacturing industry. The publications have been arranged in order to minimize the uncertainties and expand the scope of the investigation. We assessed the aspects, which are influencing the carbon footprint, and built a mathematical model to calculate the carbon footprint of the certain glass manufactories. The scaling of the life cycle for a period of 5 years (12 recycling units) was carried out for two ways of recycling glass containers: involving 20 % of cullet and washing salvage glass containers. A graphical comparison of the calculation has been prepared. In conclusion, we described possible stimuli for glass containers recycling as well as for the increase of the glassware share in the beverage packaging.

  • PIEZOCERAMICS TECHNOLOGIES: APPROACHES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT MITIGATION

    • Pages: 28-42
    • Views: 228

    The functional ceramic materials are broadly used in the electronic industry. Many of them are comprised of ferroelectric materials because of their outstanding piezoelectric and dielectric properties. Traditionally, the most popular piezoceramic materials are lead-based titanate-zirconate family (PZT), which have high values of piezoelectric properties. The negative aspect of PZT-based materials is associated with the toxic nature of lead. The toxicity of these materials makes their manufacturing and proper disposal difficult; hence, a new research direction has emerged to replace the lead-based materials with ceramic analogs containing no lead. Besides, the rising cost of energy and concerns about the environmental impact mitigation have necessitated more efficient and sustainable piezoceramics manufacturing processes. The ceramic industry is an energy-intensive industrial sector, and consequently, the potential to improve energy efficiency is enormous, mainly through the introduction of modern sintering tchnologies. Although toxicity and energy consumption are forms of environmental impact, strategies for managing each are different. While several technological approaches have been developed to reduce energy costs, there is a significant potential for improving environmental appeal of the process by introducing additive manufacturing methods, new sintering techniques and composites fabrication methods. This paper presents a brief analysis of the prospects for introducing 3D-printing methods in the production of piezoceramics and piezoelectric composites from the point of view of improving strategies for environmental impact mitigation.

  • THE MANUFACTURING METHOD EFFECT ON THE STRUCTURE AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLID SOLUTION Ce0.8Y0.2О2-?

    • Pages: 43-51
    • Views: 210

    The solid solution Ce0.8Y0.2O2-? was obtained by three methods: sol gel, glycine nitrate and solid-state reaction. The synthesis temperature was 1350 ?C for the sample obtained by the sol gel method and 1500 ?C for the remaining samples. It’s shown by the X-Ray method that all samples have a cubic lattice with a fluorite structure. The microstructure, density, electrical conductivity, microhardness and crack resistance of the synthesized ceramics were investigated. By the impedance spectroscopy method, a system Ce0.8Y0.2O2-? obtained by the sol gel method was found to have the highest electrical conductivity reaching 5.37 mS/cm at a temperature of 550 ?С and the lowest activation energy equal to 0.83 eV in the temperature range of 300 – 550 ?C. The contribution to the conductivity of the grains and the grain boundaries is defined. A common conductivity is shown to be decreased because of the resistance of the grain boundaries for all samples.

  • THE USE OF ALUMINUM-CONTAINING WASTE FROM THE PRODUCTION OF METALLIC CHROMIUM TO CREATE ACID-RESISTANT TILES

    • Pages: 52-59
    • Views: 240

    The use of aluminum-containing slag from the production of metallic chromium in an amount of 40 % allows to obtain acid-resistant tiles with high physical, mechanical and chemical parameters at a firing temperature of 1300 ?C. Studies have shown that the introduction of slag containing more than 70 % aluminum oxide and more than 8 % chromium oxide (trivalent) into the compositions of ceramic masses promotes the formation of high-temperature minerals: corundum (2050 ?C) and (III) Сr2О3 (sesquioxide, the mineral escolaite in nature), which has a melting point of 2435 ?C, which significantly increases the refractoriness of acid-resistant tiles.

  • PROPANTS BASED ON DRILLING SLURRIES

    • Pages: 60-65
    • Views: 215

    The work is devoted to the study of the impact of drilling waste on the ecological system, types of drill sludge recycling, the possibility of using drill sludge from the Morozovskoye deposit (Russia) for the production of proppants. In the oil industry, proppants are used for wedging layers. They are a loose material consisting of granules. Currently used proppants have different applications, which depend on the technical characteristics of the material. This study examines the prospects for the use of drilling slurries for the synthesis of aluminosilicate materials. For this purpose, studies of the slurry were conducted and the corresponding conclusion was made based on the obtained data. In the course of the research, the chemical and phase composition of the drilling sludge of the Morozovsky deposit of the Southern Federal District was determined.

  • MECHANICAL AND MICROSTRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF OPAQUE CERAMIC TILES GLAZED WITH SOME INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Autors:

    Israil L. I.

    • Pages: 66-67
    • Views: 228

    The primary goal of this research is to determine the mechanical properties of opaque glazed ceramic tiles containing fly ash, tincal waste, and recycled red clay, including to assess if the results meet international requirements.
    Opaque glaze and tincal waste were the main components of all glaze compositions of four groups, which were named OG (original), FA (fly ash), RC (red clay), and FC (mixture) according to the additive. The ceramic tiles were prepared by dipping the biscuits in the glaze composition and firing them at 1150 ?C.
    The water absorption of the FA, RC, and FC tiles was less than that of the OG tiles (< 0.52 %) and the scratch hardness values were between 6 and 7. All the experimental groups were also resistant to thermal shock, chemicals, and staining showing high opacity (L* > 92) and having a light yellow-red color.
    The micro- and crystallographic structure of some selected tiles were determined by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Zircon, diopside and augite phases were recognized.